Correct cultivation of chard beetroot


Swiss chard is a little-known culture in Russia. This is a big oversight for gardeners. The vegetable has great nutritional value, excellent taste, and has medicinal properties. Mangold is absolutely unpretentious to growing conditions and provides the diet with a tasty and healthy product from the beginning of winter to frost.

Origin and characteristics of chard

Mangold is one of the most ancient vegetable crops. Human cultivation began around 2000 BC. e. in the ancient Mesopotamia. Culture came to Russia in the 16th century.

Changes in climatic and soil conditions have led to the evolution of the Swiss chard. It spread wide, the woody fabrics becoming juicy and fleshy. After a while, the wild forms of the vegetable were transformed into table beets. Therefore, vegetables have similar agricultural techniques, taste and nutritional qualities.
Mangold belongs to the Amaranth family and the Beet genus. Leaves and petioles are eaten, the root of the plant is inedible... The culture is popular in Europe, USA and Japan. It is rarely found in private gardens in Russia.
It is a biennial plant. In the first year, the roots and rosette of leaves develop, in the second year it blooms and forms seeds. The vegetable is characterized by large leaves with various colors, a corrugated surface and wide petioles. The petioles and leaves taste like young beets and spinach.

There are leaf and petiole forms of Mangold. Petiole forms differ in petiole widths up to 5 cm; they are eaten as asparagus. Leafy forms are used in cooking like young cabbage and spinach.

Composition and useful properties

Beneficial substances accumulate in the leaves and stalks of chard, forming a unique biological complex in their composition.
Structure:

  • vitamins: C, E, K, PP, group B, provitamin A, biotin;
  • mineral elements: potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, copper;
  • betanin, betaxanthin;
  • flavonoids: vitexin, quercetin, catechin, myricetin;
  • phenolic acids: caffeic, syringic, vanilla;
  • pectin substances, amino acids.

100 g of beetroot contains 93 g of water, 3, 74 g of carbohydrates, 1.6 g of dietary fiber, 1.8 g of protein. Energy value 19 kcal.
For the human diet, Swiss chard is valuable for its impressive set of nutrients and fiber content, which improves digestion.e. Salads, stews, cabbage rolls, vegetable soups and preserves for the winter are prepared from beetroot.

Chard has anti-inflammatory, regenerating, hemostatic, antioxidant properties. In folk medicine, it is used to treat colds, bleeding, inflammation of the eye membranes, anemia and vitamin deficiency.
Beetroot helps regulate blood sugar levels, activates brain activity and strengthens eyesight.
Vegetable antioxidants suppress the effect of free radicals on healthy cells, cleanse the body of toxins. This prevents the development of cancer cells, suppression of immunity and metabolic disorders.

The only contraindication of chard is the body's sensitivity to its components. The vegetable is consumed with restrictions for high blood viscosity, gout, kidney disease and rheumatoid arthritis. The oxalates in the vegetable can lead to complications of these diseases.

Popular varieties

Beetroot does not differ in variety of varieties. Plants of different varieties have almost identical aroma and taste, resistance to cold and drought. When choosing a variety, gardeners are guided by the ripening time and decorativeness of the plant.

Review of some varieties:

  • Emerald. A plant with a rosette, up to 45 cm high, medium bubbly leaves and light green petioles. Resistant to flowers. Ripening 35 days after germination, full harvesting after 60 days. Productivity 5-7 kg per 1 m2.
  • Bride. The rosette of the plant is up to 60 cm high, the leaves are dark green, the petioles are light with a golden tint. The variety is relatively resistant to drought and cold. First harvest 55 days after germination. Productivity per plant - 1 kg.
  • Ruby. A plant with bright red petioles and veins on a leaf plate, a vertical rosette up to 45 cm in height. Ripening of leaves in 40 days after germination, mass harvesting in 80 days. The yield of 1 plant is up to 1.5 kg.

The following varieties are popular with gardeners: Lucullus, Argentata, Belovinka, Brazilian, Volcano, Curly and Spinach.

Chard is also interesting as an ornamental plant. The combination of plants with different color palettes and the noble gloss of the leaves will decorate any flower bed and empty spaces of the site.

Growing chard

Beetroot is a relatively cold-resistant plant. Young shoots are able to withstand t -2-3 ° C, die at t -4 ° C. Adult plants are able to withstand short-term cold temperatures down to -7 ° C. In the southern regions, the roots of the plant are well preserved in winter, and in spring they give fresh shoots. In the conditions of the middle zone of the Russian Federation and Siberia, the culture is grown as an annual plant.

Sowing seeds

It is rational to grow leaf beets by sowing seeds in open ground. Seeds germinate well when the soil warms up to + 5 ° C - + 7 ° C. Depending on the region, they can be sown as early as early or mid-May.
The soil for Swiss chard is prepared in the fall. An unshaded area is chosen, ideally if tomatoes, cucumbers, carrots, onions or potatoes grew on it. The crop should not be planted after beets or spinach.
The site is dug up, the remnants and roots of predecessors are removed. For 1 m2, make:

  1. rotted manure 5 kg;
  2. superphosphate 20 g;
  3. potassium chloride 15 g.

In the spring, shallow loosening is carried out, adding 10 g of ammonium sulfate per 1 m2.

For better germination, the seeds are kept in a growth stimulator (Zircon, Epin) for 2 hours. Seeds are sown to a depth of 2 cm in one row, leaving a row spacing of 35 cm. After sowing, the surface of the furrows is mulched with peat and watered. Seed consumption per 1 m2 - 1 g.
Seedlings appear in 7-10 days. Prior to that, monitor the moisture content of the soil.
Important! For faster harvesting and saving time during spring work, leaf beets can be sown before winter. Sowing seeds is carried out with a decrease in t to + 5 ° C. The surface of the beds is mulched with peat or rotted humus with a layer of 3-5 cm.

Leaf beet care

Chard is watered at the root as the earthen coma dries up, in dry weather almost every day. The hardened soil is loosened, removing weeds.
The first thinning is carried out after the appearance of two true sheets. A distance of 15 cm is left between the plants.After 2 weeks, they are thinned again, leaving a distance of 40 cm.
10 days after the last thinning, the plants begin to feed every 10-12 days... For this, organic and mineral fertilizers are used.

The options are:

  • mullein solution 1: 10;
  • chicken manure solution 1: 20;
  • Kemira Universal;
  • nitrophoska solution 50 g / 10 l.

Fertilizers are applied only after abundant watering with an average consumption of 1 liter per plant. To replace mineral fertilizers, you can use wood ash 150 g per 1 m2. It is simply scattered onto the soil surface before loosening and watering.

Many gardeners practice forcing the plant in winter. To do this, dug up the rhizomes of chard in the fall, store them in the basement or underground. In December, 2-3 rhizomes are planted in flower pots, placed in a lighted place at t + 20 ° C- + 23 ° C. After 30 days, young leaves are formed, ready to eat.

Harvesting and storage of crops

Cutting off leafy varieties of chard begins after the development of 5-7 leaves, and petiolate in the phase of 10-12 leaves. Petioles and leaves are harvested during the summer, cutting off 3-4 pieces from the outer side of the rosette at a height of 3 cm from the soil level.
The final harvest is carried out before long frosts in mid-October.... For storage, cut leaves are placed in wooden boxes in a thin layer. Beets at t 0 ° C can only survive for 7 days. The only way to store it for a long time is to freeze it.

Mangold successfully combines decorative, nutritional and medicinal properties. And this with minimal maintenance. It is not surprising that leaf beets are gradually gaining popularity among Russian gardeners, and they have practically no negative reviews.


Swiss chard and its cultivation

Beetroot Is a vegetable crop rich in trace elements necessary for the proper functioning of the endocrine system of the human body. It is currently grown in a very limited number of home gardens. It is believed that the cultivation of this salad culture does not deserve due attention from summer residents.

Meanwhile, the cultivation of leaf beets does not require the allocation of a special place, preparation of soil rich in humus. This crop can thrive on loam, shaded by large buildings or fences. Swiss chard beets deserve the attention of gardeners - read about their beneficial properties and familiarize yourself with cultivation techniques. This information will allow you to make the right decision when purchasing seeds from a specialty store.


Product description

Chard red (leaf beet)

Mangold is a biennial herb, a close relative of fodder, sugar and common, table, beets. In appearance, the plant resembles spinach, which is why it is often called spinach beet. This unpretentious culture has gained popularity due to its healing properties.

Variety value: relative cold resistance, not picky about soils, rich in vitamins C, B1, B2, PP, carotene, mineral salts, proteins, sugars. The use of chard juice promotes the formation of red blood cells, vasodilation, memory improvement, is recommended for anemia, cleanses the liver, gallbladder and kidneys. Juicy, not hardened leaves and petioles are used for food. Leaves fresh and boiled, petioles - only boiled. Salads, soups, side dishes are prepared from them.

Mid-season (80-90 days from germination to marketable ripeness), for growing in greenhouses, film shelters and in the open field. The plant is cold-resistant, moisture-loving, the leaves are violet-green, the petioles are crimson-red. Resistant to flowers. It grows back very quickly, so regular pruning is required. The yield of leaves and petioles in the open field is 3.0-5.5 kg / m², in the closed field - 6-10 kg / m². The leaf blade is 60 cm long, light green with anthocyanin, glossy, with red veins. The petiole is 25 cm long, the mass of the productive part of the plant is 500-1000 g.

Landing: When grown by direct sowing, seeds are sown in early May, when grown by seedlings, seedlings are planted in mid-May, at the age of 35-45 days.


Types and varieties of leaf beet Mangold

Mangold does not differ in a wide variety of varieties - all species are almost identical in taste, resistant to drought and temperature extremes. They differ only in the color and shape of the leaves, which are divided into two types:

  1. Stem (Swiss chard) - eaten along with the stems. Leaves are bright green (sometimes yellow) with white and reddish tints.
  2. Schnitt-chard (chives) - only its leaves are eaten. At the same time, it is frost-resistant and germinates new leaves in place of the cut ones.

Breeders were able to breed several varieties from these two varieties, some of them are especially popular among gardeners:

  • Emerald
  • Bride
  • Ruby.

Chard is grown both for food consumption and for decorative flower bed decoration, as its bright color palette makes them especially attractive.


Growing and care

Regular watering, weeding, weeding, loosening of the soil are necessary measures in order to get a healthy plant.

The yield will be greater if you provide the beetroot with abundant watering.

At this stage, it is important not to flood the plant, as excess moisture can cause diseases or pests.

Choosing the right place

It is better to choose a sunny place. The ideal option would be an area where the plant will be in the shade for half the day and the other half in the sun.

Sowing seeds in late autumn

If the region is characterized by short winters, where there is no severe frost, then this method can be used. Chard seeds are planted in open ground in late autumn.

The first shoots will appear with the onset of warmth. This usually occurs in early spring.

At this stage, you need to focus on the weather. If frost is foreseen, it is recommended to cover the not yet matured sprouts with film or other material.

  1. First, they collect earth in a bucket and put it in a warm place.
  2. When the time comes for sowing and the ground freezes, the planting material is scattered in rows.
  3. From above they are covered with dry earth from a bucket.

With the onset of spring, when the snow melts, it will be warm outside, you can watch the first shoots appear.

Plant propagation by seedlings

Seedling method of growing leaf beets mainly in regions with long winters and severe frosts.

It will not be possible to get juicy stems and leaves there in a short summer period.

The optimal time for sowing seeds for seedlings is the end of March. The soil can be taken from the site or purchased at the store.

Sowing looks like this:

  1. Soil mixture is poured into boxes or pots, watered.
  2. Seeds are carefully laid out on the surface, sprinkled with earth on top. The distance between them is 4-6 cm.
  3. For germination, seedlings need warmth and moisture, so the containers are covered with foil.
  4. The air temperature for germination must be at least + 22-25 ° С.
  5. After 3-5 days, sprouts will appear. Now the film is removed, the containers with the seedlings are transferred to a lighted place.

At this stage, it is important to lower the air temperature to + 10-12 ° C.

Otherwise, the seedlings may stretch out.

Seedling care is simple.

They need watering when the soil dries up.

The seedlings are transferred to a permanent place when warm weather without frost is established outside.

Note! The main thing is not to flood the plant, as excess moisture can cause a disease called black leg! With it, the roots of the plant begin to rot, and the plant dies.


Diseases

Speaking about the cultivation and care of Swiss chard, one cannot ignore the topic of diseases and pests. Most of all, this culture is susceptible to powdery mildew attacks. This fungal disease affects young stems.

A white coating appears on them, similar to flour. Timely cleaning of the site from dry and rotten tops, as well as moderate watering, helps to avoid such a misfortune. If you notice fungus on the stems, remove them and discard them away from the planting to prevent the spread of the disease.

With excessive watering and acidic soils, a disease such as root beetle can develop. The timely introduction of potassium supplements helps to overcome the disease. Among the pests of chard, earthen fleas and beet aphids are affected. To combat them, the beds are sprinkled with a mixture of wood ash and tobacco, and irrigation is also done with onion tincture. For 10 liters of water, you need 300 grams of onions. All these products have deterrent properties and do not harm the plant itself.


Mangold - planting and care (from the Encyclopedia of Garden Plants)

MANGOLD (beetroot, Roman cabbage) is one of the oldest vegetable plants of the Amaranth family, grown for large leaves and succulent petioles. It is used as a food and decorative crop.

This is a biennial plant, forming in the first year a branched root and a rosette of leaves on thick petioles, in the second - a flower stem up to 1.5 m high.The leaves are large, varied (from light green to maroon) in color, often wavy or corrugated, fleshy petioles, yellow, green, orange, red. The flowers are small, greenish, collected in paniculate inflorescences, pollinated by wind and insects. Seeds, like beets, are collected in balls, stored for three years.

Leaves and petioles are rich in vitamins and minerals. From boiled and stewed petioles, delicious side dishes are obtained, the leaves are canned, used to prepare fillings for pies, salads, soups and cabbage rolls. Chard is useful for diabetes, obesity, anemia, as well as for spring vitamin deficiency. Due to the presence of oxalic acid, this vegetable is not recommended to be consumed in large quantities for diseases of the kidneys and gallbladder.

It is a relatively cold hardy plant. Young plants can tolerate small (up to -3 ° C) frosts, adult specimens can withstand short-term frosts down to -7 ° C. Chard is light and moisture-loving, picky about soil fertility and responsive to fertilization, especially nitrogen fertilization. Modern varieties are not prone to flowering.

TE WHAKAMAHI ME TE WHAKI.

Beets are grown by direct sowing into the ground in the spring at the beginning of May, soaking the seeds two to three days before planting. They sow in grooves with row spacing of 45-60 cm, seeding to a depth of 3-4 cm. To obtain early greens, Swiss chard can also be grown by seedling in pots and cassettes. Sowing seedlings - early April.

Seedlings are thinned twice: in the phase of 4-5 leaves - at a distance of 8 cm. After two to three weeks - at a distance of 15-25 cm. Harvesting begins in July, selectively cutting out large leaves with petioles, and ends in early October. In leafy varieties, the leaves are cut every 7-10 days. In places with mild climates, leaf beets can be left in the winter for early greenery. In the Non-Black Earth Zone, chard freezes out. The roots can be used for winter forcing.

In wet weather and with thickened sowing, chard can be affected by fungal diseases (most often peronosporosis and various spots). Control measures - weeding, removal of plant residues, crop rotation. Pests on chard include beet flies, beetles and larvae of the beetroot beet. The fight against them consists in removing affected leaves, covering crops with non-woven cloth, and killing weeds.

Chard varieties are divided into two groups: petiolate and leafy.

The 'Lucullus', 'Fordhook Giant', 'White Silver' varieties of silvery-petioled chard have silvery fleshy stalks and wrinkled leaves with white veins. The varieties ‘Scarlet’, ‘Pomegranate’, ‘Volcano’, ‘Bule Blood’. ‘Ruby’, ‘Beauty’, ‘Charlie’ petioles from bright red to purple in color. ‘Green’ varieties. ‘Emerald’, ‘Malachite’. ‘Mirage’ have green petioles. The 'Bride' cultivar has a white petiole with a golden tint, the 'Svekman' cultivar has dark green leaves and wide white petioles.

Leafy varieties (‘Winter’, ‘Green leafy’) are distinguished by a powerful rosette of leaves and thin short petioles.

The early ripening varieties Bule BloodXCHARX with purple leaves and XCHARXVulcanXCHARX with dark green leaves form a low compact rosette of leaves and are ready for cutting within 30 days after sowing.


Watch the video: 7 Vegetables that can survive freezing


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