Care for a young plantation (1 year of plant life) should be aimed at creating optimal conditions that ensure high survival rate of seedlings, good growth and overwintering of plants.
The soil is compacted during planting of seedlings, therefore, upon completion of work (watering, mulching), they immediately begin to loosen the row spacings. Then they check the condition of the plants, free the covered hearts and leaves from the earth or peat.
A week after planting, the survival rate of the plants is determined: in place of the dead, new seedlings of the same variety are planted, without violating the cleanliness of the plantings. For an autumn planting, it is better to postpone repairs until next spring.
On a young strawberry plantation, planted in the fall, before the onset of frost, furrows with a depth of 8-10 cm are cut in the aisles.Late in autumn, brushwood, cut branches, etc. are scattered on the frozen soil to better retain snow on the plantation. drainage of water from those areas where it stagnates.
After thawing the soil, the overwintered plants are harvested. When the seedlings protrude, it is deepened to the root collar, the soil is piled up when the roots are exposed, or peat is poured onto the plants, freeing the apical bud (heart) from the ground. Untimely execution of these works often leads to death or severe thinning of autumn plantings.
Young strawberries can thrive only on loose soil containing sufficient moisture and nutrients.
To create these conditions, it is necessary to keep the soil on the plantation in a loose and weed-free condition. During the winter, it becomes quite compacted and covered with a crust. The first loosening in rows and aisles is carried out as early as possible, as the soil thaws and ripens. A delay in the first spring loosening leads to a loss of moisture in it and a weakening of plant growth.
Loosening in rows is done with extreme caution so as not to damage still weakly rooted plants and adventitious roots that have begun to develop.
If this work is done carelessly, the plants are greatly lagging behind in growth, which later negatively affects their productivity. Near the bushes, the soil is loosened to a depth of 2-3 cm, and at a distance from them - by 6-8 cm.
During the summer, the young strawberry plantation is kept in a clean and loose state. During the growing season, it is necessary to carry out at least 3-4 loosening in the rows, and in the aisles, loosening is carried out more often, making sure that a crust does not form after rains.
When planting in spring and poor development of seedlings, it is advisable to remove flower stalks. In early autumn planting, when the plantation is established with well-developed standard seedlings, the peduncles are not removed, since young plants, after overwintering normally, give a good harvest.
If strawberries are planted on well-prepared soil filled with fertilizers, then fertilization is not required on a young plantation in the first year. With weak plant growth, fertilizing with ammonium nitrate is necessary at the rate of 10 g per 1 running meter. But it should be brought in no earlier than a month after planting. Earlier feeding inhibits the formation of young roots.
In winter, a plot of young strawberries should leave clean of weeds, with loose soil in rows and aisles. The last autumn loosening should be deeper.
To prevent young plants from freezing out in winter, it is necessary to mulch them with peat, humus or sawdust in late autumn. In this state, they overwinter well, and in early spring, when the soil thaws, they are freed from mulching material, which, when loosening, is embedded in the soil.
The implementation of all these activities contributes to obtaining a full harvest.
Caring for fruiting strawberries is aimed at ensuring the powerful development of plants and the formation of a high yield in the years of fruiting. To do this, it is necessary to properly process the soil, apply fertilizers in a timely manner, water and apply some specific techniques for caring for plants (removal of whiskers, timely mowing of leaves, etc.).
In autumn, on a fruiting strawberry plantation, as well as on new plantings, sewage furrows are cut to prevent the plants from getting wet. In late autumn and winter, measures are taken to accumulate snow in order to ensure a safe wintering of strawberries.
In early spring, during intense snow melting, they provide the release of melt water. Then, when the soil dries up, with the onset of stable warming, dry strawberry leaves are raked and removed from the plantation with a fan rake. This contributes to the improvement of plantings, since the wintering stages of pests and pathogens of many fungal diseases are destroyed along with dry leaves.
At the first spring loosening of the soil, partially bare roots and overgrown bushes rising above the soil are hewn. For hilling bushes, loose soil is taken from the aisles. As a result, in subsequent years, strawberries appear to grow, as it were, on low ridges (with one-line placement on a flat surface).
During the growing season, as the soil is compacted and weeds appear, the soil is loosened in rows and aisles. Loosening is stopped two weeks before the berries ripen.
After the first spring loosening, the soil in the rows is mulched with manure, compost, peat or other materials (if strawberries are not grown on a dark mulching film).
During the ripening of the berries, the peduncles droop under their weight, and the berries become dirty and rot, in contact with the soil. In order to avoid crop losses and to increase the marketability of products before the harvest ripens, cutting straw, sawdust, shavings, mulch paper, etc. is spread under the bushes. It is impossible to underlay freshly cut grass, as even with light rains it decomposes and promotes decay of the berries.
Particular attention should be paid to the care of the soil and plants on the strawberry plantation after the end of fruiting, since during the harvesting period the soil in the aisles is strongly compacted. At this time, new leaves grow in the strawberry, new horns (stems) are intensively formed, on which, in turn, young roots are formed, flower buds are laid. The growth and development of plants in the post-harvest period predetermine the next year's harvest.
The oppression of plants during this period, caused by soil compaction, its weediness, lack of moisture, etc., is the main reason for the weak winter hardiness and low yield of strawberries in the next year. Therefore, immediately after harvesting, the soil is cultivated in rows and aisles throughout the plantation.
At the same time, plants are piled up in rows with loose earth, as a result of which the best conditions are created for the growth of new adventitious roots in the upper parts of the rhizome.
Autumn loosening of row spacings is carried out deeper - by 12-15 cm, which allows accumulating moisture in the soil in autumn and spring. After the autumn loosening, it is advisable to mulch the soil near the bushes again. This contributes to better wintering of strawberries.
A necessary measure for the care of fruiting strawberries is the removal of creeping shoots (whiskers), which greatly deplete the bush, reducing its yield, and interfere with soil cultivation. They are removed as they grow. Only those rooted rosettes are left in place, which form a strip of a row, filling and expanding it.
Immediately after harvesting, in the areas of the second and third years of fruiting, it is recommended to mow the leaves, and in case of severe disease and pest damage, also on the site of the first year of fruiting. It is impossible to be late with this operation, otherwise new leaves will not have time to grow by autumn, the plants will not replenish nutrient reserves and will not properly prepare for overwintering. When mowing, make sure not to damage the growth bud; for this, the lower part of the petioles is left unmowed.
The cut leaves are removed from the plantation. If mowing is not done on time, it is better to limit yourself to selective removal of old, diseased, drying leaves. A prerequisite for the normal regrowth of plants after mowing or partial removal of old leaves is watering the plantation, fertilizing with mineral fertilizers, spraying to destroy pests and pathogens.
The most important activity for caring for strawberries is sorting. Often, weed varieties appear on strawberry beds that do not produce berries at all (Zhmurka, Dubnyak) or form small non-varietal fruits with achenes pressed into the pulp (Bakhmutka, Podveska), but having strong bushes with a large number of creeping shoots. In addition, in the plantings there are seedlings grown from overripe, pecked and rotten berries left on the plantation. They also sharply differ from varietal plants in different morphological and deteriorated qualitative traits.
In order not to take rosettes from weed plants, it is necessary to carry out a variety cleaning twice a season (during flowering and fruiting periods) with the obligatory removal of weed bushes.
Simultaneously with the variety cleaning, the most productive bushes with large berries are revealed. Such bushes are marked and sockets are taken from them for reproduction.
Read in the second part of the article on strawberry care: Fertilization. Watering strawberries. Frost protection for strawberries
candidate of agricultural sciences
Ruyan's Alpine strawberry does not form a mustache at all - rooting creeping shoots. It is propagated by dividing a bush or sowing seeds.
Adult strawberry bushes can be divided into parts and planted. It is best to do this in the spring or at the end of August, in cloudy, cool weather. The cuttings are planted at the same depth as they grew earlier. After planting, watered abundantly. Can be covered with non-woven covering material to protect from the scorching sun. When the plants take root well, the shelter is gradually removed. Dividing shrubs is a good way to rejuvenate strawberry beds over five years old.
Overgrown old bushes of beardless strawberries can be rejuvenated by dividing
Strawberry seeds are very small, so the seedlings are grown at home in pots or boxes. Various plastic containers for food and semi-finished products, disposable cups are well suited for this purpose. For sowing, you can use ready-made commercial soil for indoor plants or special for growing seedlings. For seedlings, both a lack and an excess of water are dangerous, therefore, drainage holes in the bottom are necessarily made in the seed tanks.
The best time to sow is from early March to April. At this time, there is still not enough sunlight, the plants are stretched out. To prevent this, arrange an artificial backlight with fluorescent lamps. They are placed at a height of about 10 centimeters above the tops of the plants and turned on for 12-14 hours a day.
Illumination with fluorescent lamps prevents the seedlings from pulling out
Strawberry seedlings are very tender and easily stretch out with a lack of light
After the appearance of 1-2 common trifoliate leaves, the seedlings dive into separate cups
When 5 true leaves appear, strawberry seedlings are ready for planting
An English variety that belongs to the middle ripening period. The ripening and filling period of the berry is extended. High yield, large fruits (the largest ones reached 80-110g). The shape is rounded-conical, the color is bright red. Thick and sweet. The advantage of the variety is its self-pollination and frost resistance, as well as the ability to grow in one place for more than 10 years. Suitable for industrial cultivation.
Care for garden strawberries in August begins with trimming the whiskers together with the rosettes formed on them. To increase the yield of the crop, it is better to perform the procedure in three passes:
The mustache is cut at a distance of 10 cm from the base of the plant. You can use a knife, pruner, or garden shears as a cutting tool. You should carefully hold the mustache with your other hand so as not to accidentally cut off the excess part of the bush.
ON THE PICTURE: A mustache with new rosettes formed, in which full-fledged roots have formed, can be left after pruning for strawberries to propagate.
Also, caring for strawberries after picking berries involves removing old and diseased leaves from the bush, only hearts and young leaves remain. The "heart" of a strawberry is the apical bud of the main shoot (horn), which contains the rudiments of a peduncle with flowers. The hearts should always be above the surface of the soil, otherwise they may vanish under the soil (or leaf litter).
ON THE PICTURE: All old strawberry leaves and stained leaves must be ruthlessly removed.
Want to harvest a bountiful berry crop? Remove the strawberry whiskers both during flowering and during fruiting. And when caring for strawberries (garden strawberries) after harvest, do not cut the most powerful mustache. A beautiful young bush will grow from it to renew the old plant. This operation is recommended every three years.
It should be remembered that after harvest, garden strawberries need care and protection from all kinds of diseases no less than in spring. Preventive and curative spraying of strawberries is an important component of care in August, designed to protect berries from various fungi (gray and black rot), stains, powdery mildew and a number of pests.
ON THE PICTURE: Strawberries affected by powdery mildew are unsuitable for human consumption.
How to spray strawberries after harvest? Depending on the nature of the lesion, the following drugs can be used:
Feeding strawberries for the winter provides the plant with increased frost resistance and promotes the establishment of new flower buds.
How to fertilize strawberries in August? It is strictly unacceptable to use fertilizers with nitrogen, with the exception of a strong urea solution. The purpose of urea is to destroy fungal diseases in the bud, and to have a minimal stimulating effect on strawberries. For feeding purposes, it is permissible to use:
How to care for strawberries in August: the nuances of fertilization
Fertilizers should be applied along the rows, remembering to grind their components well beforehand and mix the substrate. Any summer or autumn feeding of strawberries in winter, in case of dry weather, requires subsequent watering. For every square meter of land, up to two buckets of water are needed.
Should organic fertilizers be mixed with mineral fertilizers? For example, a complex NPK fertilizer with humus? You should not do this, unless you have a whole strawberry plantation. The usual complex fertilizer is enough to enrich the soil with macronutrients. However, if you grow strawberries on heavy loamy or clayey soils (and also, if the soil is close to depletion, has turned gray and turns into dust when it dries), it is worth adding both organic and mineral water. The first will improve the soil structure, make the soil lighter, more "digestible" for the roots. And fertilizers will enrich it with nutrients.
"Honey" got its name in honor of the city located in the state of New York, where it was bred by American breeders in 1979, as a result of crossing the varieties "Vibrant" (Vibrant) and "Holiday" (Holiday). The name of the variety in English - "Honeoye" - according to the rules of transliteration (transmission of sounds by letters of the native language) is interpreted differently, therefore there are different variants of the name - "Honei", "Honeoye", "Honoay". But they are all the same variety.
The variety can be grown both in greenhouse conditions (film tunnels) and in the open field. The growing season begins in mid-May. And already at the end of the month (when grown indoors), you can feast on the first fragrant berries. In the open field, the fruiting phase begins in mid-June.
The bushes of the garden strawberry "Khonei" are well leafy, the size of the plant does not exceed 23 cm. The yield of the variety is low compared to modern hybrids, but "Honey" gives a stable yield of 400-500 g per bush or 1.2 kg per 1 m2. The flower stalks are strong, they grow medium-sized berries (weighing about 20 g) of the correct conical shape. The skin is colored dark red, the pulp is juicy, its consistency is quite dense. The taste of Honey berries is sweet and sour. Although the aroma is not pronounced, it is very pleasant.
The advantages of the "Honey" variety are:
There are few disadvantages, but still they are, these are:
From mid-September, start caring for the fertile bushes. Loosen the soil to hide the root system and keep it out of the cold. As a rule, at this time the plants are covered with a "blanket" of cut siderates or mulch soil with straw, hay, fallen leaves and cut weeds. Remove the remaining peduncles so that they do not weaken the plants, but withered cut the leaves after the first frost.
As you can see, it is not difficult to take care of garden strawberries after fruiting. It is enough just to carry out the necessary set of standard measures, and grateful plants will give you a bountiful harvest.